No no no! The line is "Search your feelings, you know it to be true!"
[/Star Wars Nerd]
AFAIK, some of the names the names are because it was adopted as a service caliber by a bunch of different countries. "Short" in German is Kurtz, and in Italian is Corto.
9mm Browning Short is because JMB also invented the 9mm Browning Long (9x20mm) at about the same time.
9x17mm are the metric dimensions of the round.
.380 ACP comes from the fact that Americans like their caliber designation in fractions of an inch rather than millimeters and because the .380 was introduced commercially by Colt (ACP = Automatic Colt Pistol)